ACIP recommends use of COVID-19 vaccines for everyone ages 6 months and older. COVID-19 vaccine and other vaccines may be administered on the same day. See the COVID-19 Vaccine: Interim COVID-19 Immunization Schedule for additional information.
Administer recommended vaccines if vaccination history is incomplete or unknown. Do not restart or add doses to vaccine series if there are extended intervals between doses. The use of trade names is for identification purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the ACIP or CDC.
* Administer recommended vaccines if vaccination history is incomplete or unknown. Do not restart or add doses to vaccine series if there are extended intervals between doses. The use of trade names is for identification purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the ACIP or CDC.
This schedule is recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and approved by the Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention (CDC), American College of Physicians (ACPexternal icon), American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFPexternal icon), American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOGexternal icon), American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNMexternal icon), and American Academy of Physician Associates (AAPAexternal icon), and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEAexternal icon).
Injury ClaimsAll vaccines included in the adult immunization schedule except pneumococcal 23-valent polysaccharide (PPSV23) and zoster (RZV) vaccines are covered by the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Information on how to file a vaccine injury claim is available at www.hrsa.gov/vaccinecompensationexternal icon.
Vaccines are recommended for adults based on age, health conditions, job, and other factors.No personal information will be retained by CDC. * This vaccine assessment tool applies to adults 19 years or older.
ACIP recommends use of COVID-19 vaccines within the scope of the Emergency Use Authorization or Biologics License Application for the particular vaccine. Interim ACIP recommendations for the use of COVID-19 vaccines can be found on the ACIP Vaccine Recommendations and Guidelines page.
Adults need to keep their vaccinations up to date because immunity from childhood vaccines can wear off over time. You are also at risk for different diseases as an adult. Vaccination is one of the most convenient and safest preventive care measures available.
You may need other vaccines based on your age, health conditions, job, lifestyle, or travel habits. Learn more about what other vaccines may be recommended for you and talk to your healthcare professional about which vaccines are right for you.
International travel increases your chances of getting and spreading diseases that are rare or not found in United States. Find out which travel vaccines you may need to help you stay healthy on your trip.
Make sure you are up-to-date on all of your routine vaccines. Routine vaccinations protect you from infectious diseases such as measles that can spread quickly in groups of unvaccinated people. Many diseases prevented by routine vaccination are not common in the United States but are still common in other countries.
Make an appointment with your healthcare provider or a travel health specialist that takes place at least one month before you leave. They can help you get destination-specific vaccines, medicines, and information. Discussing health concerns as well as your itinerary and planned activities with your provider allows them to give more specific advice and recommendations.
After years of safety testing, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licenses a vaccine for use in the United States. Then the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) , a group of medical and public health experts, develops vaccination recommendations.
Did you know There is a high-dose flu vaccine and an adjuvanted flu vaccine, which includes an adjuvant (substance) that creates a stronger immune response. Both vaccines are designed to be more effective in older adults. Learn more about flu vaccines for adults age 65 and older .
Diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis Haemophilus influenzae type b Hepatitis AHepatitis BHuman papillomavirus Influenza Measles, mumps and rubella Meningococcal (meningitis) Pneumococcal (pneumonia) Polio Rotavirus Varicella (chicken pox)Zoster (shingles- adults only)
Each year, the American Academy of Family Physicians and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) collaborate to develop recommendations for the routine use of vaccines in children, adolescents, and adults in the United States.
The Maine Immunization Program (MIP) strives to ensure full protection of all Maine children and adults from vaccine-preventable disease. Through cooperative partnerships with public and private health practitioners and community members, the MIP provides vaccine, comprehensive education and technical assistance, vaccine-preventable disease tracking and outbreak control, accessible population-based management tools, and compassionate support services that link individuals into comprehensive health care systems.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) publishes recommendations on immunizations for children and adults. The methods used by the ACIP to review evidence on immunizations may differ from the methods used by the USPSTF. For the current ACIP recommendations on immunizations, please refer to the National Immunization Program Web site at
In March 2022, CDC changed its data collection schedule to every 8 weeks for the nationwide COVID-19 infection-induced antibodyseroprevalence (commercial laboratory) survey. It now includes information on antibodies for pediatric age groups (ages 6 monthsto 17 years). Adult antibody updates will be based on thenational blood donor seroprevalence study.
First vaccinesEdward Jenner was the first to test a method to protect against smallpox in a scientific manner. He did his study in 1796, and although he did not invent this method, he is often considered the father of vaccines because of his scientific approach that proved the method worked.
The next routinely recommended vaccines were developed early in the 20th century. These included vaccines that protect against pertussis (1914), diphtheria (1926), and tetanus (1938). These three vaccines were combined in 1948 and given as the DTP vaccine.
Parents were scared of the polio epidemics that occurred each summer; they kept their children away from swimming pools, sent them to stay with relatives in the country, and clamored for an understanding of the spread of polio. They waited for a vaccine, closely following vaccine trials and sending dimes to the White House to help the cause. When the polio vaccine was licensed in 1955, the country celebrated, and Jonas Salk, its inventor, became an overnight hero.
In 1963, the measles vaccine was developed, and by the late 1960s, vaccines were also available to protect against mumps (1967) and rubella (1969). These three vaccines were combined into the MMR vaccine by Dr. Maurice Hilleman in 1971.
During the 1970s, one vaccine was eliminated. Because of successful eradication efforts, the smallpox vaccine was no longer recommended for use after 1972. While vaccine research continued, new vaccines were not introduced during the 1970s.
The vaccine for Haemophilus influenzae type b was licensed in 1985 and placed on the recommended schedule in 1989. When the schedule was published again in 1994, the hepatitis B vaccine had been added.
As more vaccines became available, an annual update to the schedule was important because of changes that providers needed to know, such as detailed information about who should receive each vaccine, age(s) of receipt, number of doses, time between doses, or use of combination vaccines. New vaccines were also added.
Annual updates to both the childhood and adult immunization schedules offer guidance to healthcare providers in the form of new recommendations, changes to existing recommendations, or clarifications to assist with interpretation of the schedule in certain circumstances. The schedules are reviewed by committees of experts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American Academy of Family Physicians.
In the early 1950s, four vaccines were available: diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and smallpox. Because three of these vaccines were combined into a single shot (DTP), children received five shots by the time they were 2 years old and not more than one shot at a single visit.
By the mid-1980s, seven vaccines were available: diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles,mumps, rubella and polio. Because six of these vaccines were combined into two shots (DTP and MMR), and one, the polio vaccine, was given by mouth, children received five shots by the time they were 2 years old and not more than one shot at a single visit.
Adolescents, like adults, were recommended to get tetanus boosters every 10 years; most requiring their first booster dose around age 11. Other than this, however, most adolescents did not require additional vaccines unless they missed one in childhood. By 2005, vaccines specifically recommended for adolescents were only recommended for sub-groups based on where they lived or medical conditions that they had. However, a new group of vaccines became available in the latter part of the decade.
Influenza vaccines, available since the 1940s, are now recommended for most adults. Vaccines like MMR and chickenpox are recommended for adults who have not had the diseases, and vaccines including hepatitis A, hepatitis B, pneumococcus, and meningococcus are recommended for sub-groups of the adult population. The HPV vaccine became available in 2006. In 2018, the license was expanded to include people up to 45 years of age. 1e1e36bf2d